Wednesday, April 27, 2016

AAEA Letter To Mayor de Blasio in Support of EJ Act

Letter of Support

Mayor Bill de Blasio
City Hall
New York, NY  10007

Re: Environmental Justice Act [Int. No. 886]

The African American Environmentalist Association supports Council Member Inez Barron’s Environmental Justice Act [Intro 886]. The legislation has numerous cosponsors and I sincerely hope that it will be passed by the council and that you will sign it into law.  We encourage you to let the New York City Council know that you support the legislation and intend to sign it upon its passage by the Council.

Your OneNYC was recently the recipient of harsh criticism from environmental justice activists who said that it does not reflect equity.  The criticism can be silenced if you support this legislation, which assures that the executive agencies and environmental justice activists will work together to bring about a just future.

The legislation is vitally important in protecting communities throughout New York City.  At present, there is no national or state law that protects these communities.  Int. No. 886 is a local law to amend the administrative code of the city of New York, in relation to identifying and addressing environmental justice issues. Int. No. 886 sets up an interagency task force to develop agency-wide plans to assure that environmental justice in incorporated into the planning and implementation of agency duties. The legislation also creates an associated environmental justice advisory board, reflecting geographic balance, comprised of pertinent committee chairs or their designees, appointments from environmental justice community boards health or environmental committees, at least seven appointees who are directors, members or employees of environmental justice organizations and at least two appointees who are directors, members or employees of organizations engaged in research related to human health.

I drafted the Environmental Justice Bill for Councilman Charles Barron in 2003 and Councilmember Charles Barron introduced the bill (Int. No. 404) in 2004 with seven cosponsors.  After meeting with Councilwoman Inez Barron in 2014 to request re-introduction of the legislation and after much review and revisions by the Committee on Environmental Protection, Councilwoman Barron introduced the legislation that we are considering today. 

We encourage you to let the New York City Council know that you support Int. No. 886 in order to help accelerate passage of this legislation.

Sincerely yours,

Norris McDonald


Monday, April 25, 2016

Wednesday, March 16, 2016

AAEA Submits Comments To Nuclear Regulatory Commission


According to 2010 Census data, 53 percent of the U.S. population residing within a 50-miles radius of IP2 and IP3 (approximately 17,231,000 individuals) identified themselves as minority.  With such a large minority population within this 50-mile radius of Indian Point 2 and Indian Point 3, environmental justice merits more scrutiny.  AAEA has provided such information for more than a decade.  The short version is that the major benefits of the plant should be included in the impact analysis.

We do not understand the NRC’s seeming reluctance to include these benefits in its environmental assessments.  IP2 and IP3 prevent significant numbers of hospitalizations and deaths from asthma and other respiratory and pulmonary problems.  Such benefits speak directly to the importance or renewing the operating license for the facility.


Tuesday, February 23, 2016

AAEA-NY Debunks Indian Point Tritium Leak Exaggerations

AAEA-NY expressed its outrage at news outlets and politicians who misused information provided by Entergy in being transparent about its operations.

See the Journal News Op Ed and the Watertown Daily Times.


Journal News Op Ed

View: Indian Point protects air quality
Norris McDonald7:02 a.m. EST February 18, 2016

Cuomo's upstate-downstate disconnect on nuclear power threatens local environment, economy

New York has long led the country in recognizing the importance of giving people the opportunity to breathe clean air through the Clean Air Act and in combating climate change through the enactment of carbon dioxide reduction programs.
Under Gov. Andrew Cuomo's energy plan, we will only be the leader in irony. On the one hand, the administration says we need to save upstate nuclear plants because closing them would result in the release of 12 million additional metric tons of carbon dioxide into our environment, which he called a “truly unacceptable outcome.” On the other hand, the governor is determined to close the Indian Point Energy Center, which would increase the carbon dioxide emissions by 8.5 million metric tons on an annual basis — or the equivalent of adding 1.6 million cars on the road. That’s nothing less than a giant step backwards.
When it comes to public safety, transparency is great, but fear-mongering is harmful. Case in point: recently, Indian Point Energy Center did the responsible thing and voluntarily reported finding a small amount of tritium in groundwater at the plant. The recorded levels were 1/1000th — that is 1,000 times less — than what the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission requires to be reported. Simply put, the water poses no threat to the public. This water is also not used for drinking water.
Rather than commending Indian Point for its focus on safety and voluntary transparency, some politicians and media outlets decided to create hysteria, based on misinformation and falsehoods. Such manufactured hysteria creates unnecessary anxiety. It also impedes us from recognizing and dealing with actual threats to public health and safety — like the pollution that would be pumped into our air from fossil fuel plants if Indian Point were to close.
But it’s more than that, because we face an issue of environmental justice — the fair treatment of all people regarding environmental issues, irrespective of their race or income.
Asthma threat
New York’s African-American and Latino communities suffer disproportionately from asthma. As one of the millions of African-Americans with asthma, I’ve worked for decades to promote clean air in our neighborhoods. If we lose Indian Point, we’ll suffer from a marked increase in the pollutants that exacerbate asthma.
Decades of progress in bringing attention and action to cleaner air for all our citizens — progress that’s been assured thanks to Indian Point’s consistently safe, reliable, carbon-free electricity, will be lost if the state succeeds in shuttering this crucial plant. Moving us backwards while trampling over the concerns of those most at risk is no way to lead the fight against climate change.
Indian Point provides 25 percent of the electricity for New York City and Westchester County and does this with zero carbon dioxide emissions. This is more than 2,000 megawatts of virtually no carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and particulates. Losing Indian Point would degrade our air quality; weaken our already stressed electrical system; and increase the greenhouse gas emissions that lead to climate change.

Simply put, Indian Point’s continued operation means a safer and cleaner New York.
The writer is president of the African American Environmentalist Association.

Monday, July 20, 2015

African American Nuclear Power Plant Operators (Indian Point)

Theresa Motko and Rob Andersen help operate Indian Point as one of the safest nuclear energy facilities in the country.

Theresa is a senior systems engineer and mother of two, and she lives less than four miles from Indian Point in Buchanan, New York with her family.

Rob Andersen trained in nuclear safety during his years in the U.S. Navy. Today, he’s a control room supervisor at Indian Point, and lives with his wife and three children in the area.

From his position in the control room, Rob drills constantly with his team to safely manage the plant during the most challenging weather- and security-related events.In recent years,

Indian Point has invested $1 billion in upgrades and strengthened safety equipment and systems, making Indian Point safer than ever before.  For more information please visit:  (Capital New York, 7/17/2015)

Tuesday, July 14, 2015

AAEA President's Letter Published in Times Union

"The reality is that existing nuclear energy plants in New York – including Indian Point – provide a number of benefits to the state, including carbon-free, reliable energy and jobs and economic growth. In New York, nuclear accounts for 61 percent of the state’s carbon-free electricity. To put that in perspective, more than 22 million metric tons of carbon dioxide are prevented by New York’s nuclear energy facilities, equal to what would be released in a year by more than 4 million passenger cars. Nuclear energy plants also provide more than a third of New York’s electricity and are the state’s only clean-air source that can produce large amounts of electricity around the clock."

(Full Letter)

Thursday, February 19, 2015

Entergy: Always at the Black and Puerto Rican Annual Legislative Conference


By Norris McDonald

I have been attending the New York State Association of Black and Puerto Rican Legislators, Inc., Conference off and on for the past 15 years.  Although I am not crazy about going to Albany in the heart of winter, it is always well worth the trip.  It provides an opportunity for me to network with a broad combination of legislators, entrepreneurs, government officials, activists, NGO representatives and a myriad of others at the booths in the convention hall.  This year was the 44th Annual Legislative Conference. 

One thing I have noticed is that Entergy is always there.  They always have a booth that gives away great educational materials, T-shirts and I really like the water bottles.  I load up on their gear.  It is also interesting to stand with whomever is representing the company at their booth, this year it was Marva Butler, and listen to the interactions with the public.  People are always curious about nuclear power and if you can get them past the irrational fears that have been foisted on this technology, you usually get positive feedback.

Norris McDonald and Marva Butler

It was interesting when one lady came up and I asked her if she supported nuclear power. She looked at me in a strange way and then Marva started pitching the amenities of the technology.  The woman told us we were preaching to the choir.  She stated that she lived in Peekskill and was an enthusiastic supporter of Indian Point and nuclear power.  We all laughed out loud.

The New York Urban League reception was sponsored by Entergy.  Their President and CEO Arva Rice, provided a very good description of the organization's mission, goals and accomplishments.  It was also a very good reception that was well attended.

Arva Rice and Norris McDonald

We have supported Indian Point nuclear power plant for 15 years.  I remember when I first starting studying nuclear power and I ended up seeing Indian Point as the first domino that, if knocked down, could lead to other nuclear plants being closed.  That led us to launching a campaign, that continues to this day, to support this vitally important source of emission free electricity generation.

Tuesday, February 17, 2015

New York State Association of Black & Puerto Rican Legislators Annual Conference

AAEA Participates in Caucus Weekend 2015 Conference in Albany, New York

AAEA President Norris McDonald attended the 2015 conference and met with numerous members of of the New York State Legislature and the New York State Office of the State Comptroller.  This was the New York State Association of Black and Puerto Rican Legislators, Inc., 44th Annual Legislative Conference.

Norris McDonald at Hilton Albany Grand Ballroom

The theme of the 2015 Legislative Conference was "United We Stand: Labor, Civil Rights and Social Justice," which focuses on the diverse history of our workforce and the social, economic, and civil rights issues that played a role in defining today's workplace.  Assemblywoman Crystal Peoples-Stokes is the Chairwoman of the Association.

The Association is a nonprofit organization that brings together New York State's elected officials of color to raise funds toward college scholarships for graduating high school students of color in members' districts.  Many of the Association's members are also part of the Black, Puerto Rican, Hispanic & Asian Legislative Caucus - an official caucus within the state legislature that participates in the legislative and budgetary processes.

Carl Heastie, Speaker of the NYS Assembly

Assemblyman Charles Barron,& NY City Councilwoman Inez Barron

Assemblyman Michael Blake (Bronx)

While attending the conference, McDonald visited offices of Senate and Assembly members to discuss energy and environmental issues.  He met with New York State Assembly Speaker Carl Heastie in his office. McDonald also discussed environmental justice issues with other members of the legislature at various events during the conference.

New York State Comptroller Thomas P. DiNapoli sponsored the 8th Annual Emerging Manager & MWBE Conference as part of the Caucus Weekend Conference.  The purpose of the Emerging Manager Program is to help the New York State Common Retirement Fund to access the next generation of talent in the investment field.  

NYS Comptroller Thomas P. DiNapoli
Chief Investment Officer
 Vicky Fuller (Common Retirement Fund

McDonald participated in many Caucus meetings, summits, panels, break-out sessions and receptions. The New York Urban League reception was particularly interesting and their President and CEO Arva Rice provided a very good description of the organization's mission, goals and accomplishments.

Arva Rice, President & CEO, NY Urban League

Wednesday, January 14, 2015

AAEA-NY Supports Liberty Port Ambrose LNG Project

Full Written Statement

AAEA New York Director Dan Durett testified before the U.S. Coast Guard and the U.S. Maritime Administration in support of the Liberty Port Ambrose Liquefied Natural Gas Project.  The project will import natural gas into the United States and will provide diversity in energy delivery.  This gas is needed in lower New York and Long Island.

One hearing was held at the Hilton New York JFK Airport Hotel in Jamaica, New York. Approximately 150 union members attended the hearing and expressed their support for the project.

Dan Durett at the January 7, 2015 Hearing

The other hearing was held at the Sheraton Eaton Hotel in Eatontown, New Jersey.  AAEA President Norris McDonald testified before the U.S. Coast Guard and the U.S. Maritime Administration.  Approximately 100 union members attended the hearing and expressed their support for the project.

Full Written Statement

Norris McDonald at January 8, 2015 Hearing

Norris McDonald at January 8, 2015 Hearing

Norris McDonald at January 7, 2015 Hearing

Port Ambrose is a deepwater port consisting of a submerged buoy system for natural gas deliveries that will be located in federal waters approximately 19 miles from the New York shore.  Each delivery is expected to provide an average of 400 million cubic feet of natural gas per day – enough to meet the energy needs of 1.5 million homes. The majority of these deliveries will occur during the peak demand periods of winter and summer.

Saturday, January 3, 2015

Support The Liberty Port Ambrose LNG Project

AAEA - New York supports the Liberty Port Ambrose Liquefied Natural Gas Project

Port Ambrose is a deepwater port consisting of a submerged buoy system for natural gas deliveries that will be located in federal waters approximately 19 miles from the New York shore.  Each delivery is expected to provide an average of 400 million cubic feet of natural gas per day – enough to meet the energy needs of 1.5 million homes. The majority of these deliveries will occur during the peak demand periods of winter and summer.

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) supplies will arrive at Port Ambrose via specially designed Shuttle & Regasification Vessels (SRVs). Once the SRV is connected to the submerged buoy system, the LNG will be re-gasified on board and natural gas will be transferred into a new twenty-two mile subsea pipeline that will connect offshore into the existing Transco Lower New York Bay Lateral pipeline serving Long Island and New York City

The Liberty Port Ambrose Liquefied Natural Gas Project will import LNG that will be delivered from purpose-built LNG regasification vessels (LNGRVs) or Shuttle & Regasification Vessels (SRVs), vaporized on site and delivered through subsea manifolds and lateral pipelines to a buried main line connecting to the existing Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company (Transco) Lower New York Bay Lateral in New York State waters.  

On September 28, 2012, Liberty Natural Gas, LLC (Liberty), submitted an application to the
U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) and the Maritime Administration (MARAD) seeking a federal license to construct, own, and operate a deepwater port for the import and regasification of liquefied natural gas in federal waters off the coasts of New York and New Jersey

As stated in the Draft Environmental Impact Statement:

The purpose for licensing LNG deepwater ports is to provide a reliable and timely supply of natural gas and increase energy diversity, while considering impacts on the environment, safety, and security.

AAEA - New York agrees with the purpose of the project.

Friday, November 28, 2014

New York City Winter Natural Gas Prices Expected to Remain High

Boston Too 

graph of winter natural gas spot and forward prices at Henry Hub, New York City, and Boston, as explained in the article text
Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, based on Bloomberg
Note: November through March are considered winter months. Forward prices for 2014-15 and 2015-16 are as of 10/29/2014.

Despite expectations of a milder winter for 2014, marketers anticipate high prices for natural gas in Boston and New York City. Natural gas prices are expected to be lower than last winter, but higher than the average of previous winters, particularly in Boston.
Boston. Average forward prices in Boston this winter are expected to be $13.70 per million British thermal unit (MMBtu), which is $2.33/MMBtu lower than the winter of 2013-14 but much higher than previous winters. Higher natural gas prices are partly because the pipeline industry has not added any new capacity to flow more Marcellus gas into Boston and because production from eastern Canada and liquefied natural gas (LNG) from the Everett (Boston) and Canaport (New Brunswick) terminals are not high enough to serve New England peak demand.
New York City. Forward prices for New York City for the winters of 2014-15 and 2015-16 are significantly lower than the spot prices for the unusually cold winter of 2013-14. The forward prices are still slightly higher than the spot prices for the 2012-13 winter, even though several pipeline expansion projects within the past two years have added new capacity to flow more natural gas from the Marcellus region into New York City.
Since the beginning of 2014, the pipeline industry has added 2 billion cubic feet per day (Bcf/d) of capacity in the Northeast and plans to add another 0.4 Bcf/d by the end of 2014. Significantly more pipeline projects were completed between 2012 and 2014 than in previous years, reflecting the need to expand the natural gas infrastructure in the Northeast to serve growing natural gas production in this region, particularly in Pennsylvania, Ohio, and West Virginia.
graph of natural gas pipeline projects in the Northeast, as explained in the article text
Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Natural Gas Pipeline Projects

Major pipeline projects in 2014 include the following:
  • Texas Eastern Transmission's TEAM 2014 expansion was partially completed as of October 29. This project expands the Texas Eastern system with looping and new compressor stations, which enables the system to transport an additional 0.6 Bcf/d of natural gas from western Pennsylvania and West Virginia to market areas in New Jersey, New York, and Ohio.
  • The West Side Expansion Project (Smithfield III) was completed on October 27, 2014. This project enables Columbia Gas Transmission to flow 0.44 Bcf/d of gas from the Waynesburg, Pennsylvania and Smithfield, West Virginia areas to Leach, Kentucky, where the gas will be transported to the Gulf Coast on the Columbia Gulf Transmission pipeline.
  • The Seneca lateral reversal project was completed on June 18, 2014. This project enables the Rockies Express Pipeline to flow 0.25 Bcf/d of gas west to points in Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois. (DOE-EIA)

Monday, August 25, 2014

DEC To Modify Permits for Danskammer

The Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) has tentatively determined to renew and modify several permits for the Danskammer power plant, which a new owner plans to reopen.  They include air, acid rain and pollution-discharge-elimination permits. The DEC says applications for those permits and one to withdraw water from the Hudson River are complete.

Among the modifications is one requested by the facility owner, to remove the coal firing process. Danskammer’s four units burn natural gas, and two can also burn oil.
The water withdrawal permit would allow the facility to continue taking up to 455 million gallons per day.
Comments on the application and draft permits must be submitted in writing to Christopher M. Hogan, NYSDEC Division of Environmental Permits, 825 Broadway, Albany, NY 12233, or by email to, by Sept. 19. (Record Online 8/21/2014)

Friday, May 23, 2014

NYISO: "New York Power Grid Prepared for Summer"

NYISO Says Sufficient Resources Available to Meet Expected Demand Statewide

The New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) reported today that electricity supplies in New York state are expected to be adequate to meet forecasted demand this summer.

Summer Demand Forecast

The NYISO forecasts that New York’s 2014 summer peak demand will reach 33,666 megawatts (MW). The forecasted peak is below the record peak demand set last summer, when a heat wave produced power consumption of 33,956 MW on July 19, 2013.

Peak demand is a measurement of the average total electric demand by consumers for a one-hour period. One megawatt of electricity can serve approximately 800 to 1,000 homes.

Summer heat is responsible for electric power system peaks in New York as air conditioners that increase overall power usage are called upon to counteract rising temperatures. While the electricity system must be prepared to address peak load conditions, average demand is typically far less.

The peak forecast is based on normal summer weather conditions, with temperatures in New York City about 95 degrees Fahrenheit (°F). If extreme summer weather produces heat waves of 100°F in New York City and elsewhere, peak demand across the state could increase to approximately 36,000 MW.

Resource Availability

The total capacity of power resources available to New York in summer 2014 is expected to be 41,298 MW. The total includes 37,978 MW of generating capacity from New York power plants, 1,189 MW in demand response resources (programs under which consumers reduce usage) and 2,130 MW of import capability that could be used to supply energy from neighboring regions to New York.

A surplus of capacity is available for the state as a whole, but transmission constraints narrow the margins of supply for downstate regions.

While power resources remain sufficient to address forecasted demand, the margin of surplus capacity has narrowed in recent years. The resources available this summer are approximately 150 MW below last year’s total and more than 2,200 MW below the 2012 total. Since the start of summer 2012, power plants with more than 2,000 MW of generating capacity have retired or suspended operations.

Reliability Requirements

The ability of New York’s power system to meet the needs of all electricity customers at all times is established by rigorous reliability requirements. The standard for resource adequacy sets requirements for reserves over and above the amount needed to meet forecasted peak demand. In 2014, the standard requires that 39,389 MW be available to serve New York, a reserve margin of 17 percent above the summer peak demand forecast.

Demand Response and Energy Efficiency

In addition to power plant generating capacity and the capability of importing power, peak demands conditions can be addressed by demand response resources. These programs enlist large users of electricity and aggregations of smaller power customers to reduce their electricity consumption when called upon by the NYISO.  (NYISO Press Release)

Thursday, March 13, 2014

EPA to Lift Suspension and Debarment of BP

Agreement contains strong provisions to continue safety and ethics improvements in order to comply

The Environmental Protection Agency and BP today executed an agreement resolving all suspension and debarment actions against BP that barred the company from doing business with the federal government following the company’s guilty plea in the Deepwater Horizon disaster of April 2010. The administrative agreement will be in place for five years.

“This is a fair agreement that requires BP to improve its practices in order to meet the terms we’ve outlined together,” said EPA Assistant Administrator of Administration and Resources Craig Hooks. “Many months of discussions and assessments have led up to this point, and I’m confident we’ve secured strong provisions to protect the integrity of federal procurement programs.”

Under the agreement, BP is required to retain an independent auditor approved by EPA who will conduct an annual review and report on BP’s compliance with the agreement. There are also specific provisions addressing ethics compliance, corporate governance, and process safety. The agreement additionally provides EPA the authority to take appropriate corrective action in the event the agreement is breached. EPA coordinated this matter with the Department of Interior, Defense Logistics Agency and U.S. Coast Guard.

Since November 2012, EPA has suspended 25 BP entities and disqualified
BP Exploration and Production, Inc. from performing federal contract work at its corporate facility in Houston, Texas, stemming from its criminal conviction in the U.S. Government’s Deepwater Horizon case. Suspensions are issued where there is an immediate need to protect the public interest supported by adequate evidence. The suspension did not affect existing agreements BP had with the government.  The agreement announced today takes effect immediately. (EPA)

East Harlem Natural Gas Explosion

Two Manhattan apartment buildings exploded on Wednesday in East Harlem and the death toll currently stands at seven people with many others missing.  A gas leak-triggered the explosion that reduced the area to a pile of smashed bricks, splinters and mangled metal.  The explosion injured more than 60 people, with searchers still trying to locate others.   The site is at Park Avenue and 116th Street and the blast erupted at about 9:30 a.m., around 15 minutes after a neighboring resident reported smelling gas. The Con Edison utility said it immediately sent workers to check out the report, but they didn't arrive until it was too late.

A tenant in one of the destroyed buildings said residents had complained to the landlord about smelling gas as recently as Tuesday.  A few weeks ago city fire officials were called about the odor, which was so bad that a tenant on the top floor broke open the door to the roof for ventilation.
The fire department said a check of its records found no instances in the past month in which tenants of the two buildings reported gas odors or leaks.

Con Ed said there was only one gas odor complaint on record with the utility from either address, and it was last May, at the building next door to Borrero's. It was a small leak in customer piping and was fixed.
Con Ed said it remains to be seen whether the leak was in a company main or in customer-installed inside plumbing. The gas main that serves the area was made of plastic and cast iron, and the iron dated to 1887.
Age is not in and of itself an issue with cast iron. Con Edison has a cast iron replacement program and the pipe was not slated to be removed in the next three-year period.

A National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) team is investigating. The agency investigates pipeline accidents in addition to transportation disasters.  The NTSB team investigators will be looking at how Con Edison handles reports of gas odors and issues with the pipe and will be constructing a timeline of events.  (AP, NECN, 3/12/2014)

Monday, March 3, 2014

New York City Environmental Justice Hearing


By Dan Durett

AAEA President Norris McDonald and I testified at the New York City Council Committee on Environmental Protection on Friday, February 28, 2014.  The title of the hearing was: "Oversight - Air quality impacts and ways to measure and address them in NYC environmental justice communities."  The committee has a new chairman, Donovan Richards, and apparently a refreshing new interest in examining environmental justice issues in New York City.

Donovan Richards, Norris McDonald

AAEA - NY is promoting a New York City Environemental Justice Act that would provide protection for environmental justice communities.  AAEA derived the legislation from a draft of the National Environmental Justice Act [at the link behind the NY EJ Act].

It was an incredible four hour hearing.  Stakeholders from throughout the city testified to the need for protection from disproportionate pollution.  Leading environmental justice activists presented the chair and committee with testimonial after testimonial about the vulnerability and lack of protection from pollution. 

The first panel included the New York City Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) Commissioner Carter Strickland and New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene Assistant Commissioner Thomas Matte. 

Dan Durett at the NY City Council Environmental Justice Hearing

Norris McDonald's testimony focused on asthma and my testimony focused on pollution sites.

Hearing video [AAEA appearance begins at 2:20.50]             

Tuesday, February 18, 2014

AAEA "Times Herald' Article Says Keep Danskammer Closed

"Coal Plant Should Not Reopen"

Times Union [FULL OP ED]


Why is the New York state contemplating giving new life to what was one of the worst coal polluting plants in the country?

With coal power responsible for thousands of deaths annually and a host of major pollution problems, including high-levels of carbon pollution and other toxic emissions that lead to smog, soot, and asthma, New York must move beyond this energy source.

Fortunately, a diverse group of organizations are working to prevent this